If you go to the top of the page, you will see a number of links. All the way on the right is the one "Surfcasting"... that will give you a LOT of information.
Basically a couple of things different from a boat:
1. you have to deliver your bait or plugs to a spot where fish are working, that involves casting
2. you have limited ability to move once you catch a fish, so your tackle needs to be able to handle the stress of water, bait and terminal tackle and a fish.
Even bigger dogfish can test the limits of virtually any freshwater tackle folks around here have, so unless you are used to fishing for muskies, you can't use freshwater gear.
Boat tackle, when beefy enough, does not usually cast properly, due to shorter length, and different reels...possibly... so you'll want dedicated surf gear.
a 9 or 10' rod, rated at 3-8oz for bait, or 2-5oz for plugs, with a reel in the 5000 class minimum, will get you going generally for anything, though most surf anglers
have a few different rigs (few...HA!
) lightening up for summer fluking (or in my case kingfish-ing), beefier for fishing bunker heads in the spriing and fall, better casting for plug fishing etc etc.
that's a start... much much more can be said.